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Sunday, 1 February 2015

Association of decrease in carbohydrate intake with reduction in abdominal fat during 3-month moderate low-carbohydrate diet among non-obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes



The effectiveness of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet (M-LCD) has been demonstrated in terms of glycemic control, body weight and serum lipid profiles. We investigated the effect of a 3-month M-LCD on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and examined an association between decrease in carbohydrate intake and reduction in abdominal fat among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).


Seventy-six patients (45 men and 31 women; mean age ± SD: 59.5 ± 11.1 years) with T2DM were instructed to follow an M-LCD for 3 months. We assessed abdominal fat distribution using computed tomography and macronutrient intakes from 3-day dietary records at baseline and after 3 months.


The patients complied well with the M-LCD - %carbohydrate: %fat: %protein at baseline and after 3 months were 51:27:15 and 41:33:18 in men and 54:27:16 and 42:37:19 in women, respectively. VAT and SAT significantly decreased during the 3 months (P for time <0.001 for both). Decrease in carbohydrate intake (g/day) and %carbohydrate were correlated with decrease (%) in VAT. The correlations were significant in men (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.469 for carbohydrate intake (g) and r = 0.402 for %carbohydrate) but not in women (r = 0.269 and 0.278, respectively). The correlations in men remained significant in multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and changes in energy intake.


In men, decrease in carbohydrate intake was significantly correlated with VAT loss during a 3-month M-LCD, independently of reduction in energy intake.


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