NHS figures reveal fewer than 10% of patients are offered the full series of tests in some areas of England.
Health Minister Paul Burstow said the situation was "outrageous" and "unacceptable".
Primary care trusts in low test areas said they were working to improve services for diabetes patients.
According to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, primary care trusts (PCTs) should ensure all diabetic patients are given a series of nine different health checks every 12 months.
These include blood pressure, blood glucose levels, cholesterol, and examinations of the eyes and feet.
The tests are designed to spot the early signs of complications linked to diabetes such as infection leading to gangrene, blindness, kidney failure and heart problems.